Kenniscentrum voor fietsbeleid

Road safety manual


This manual clusters all the knowledge about road safety in the Netherlands. Part 1 seeks to get a handle on the subject of road safety. Part 2 addresses measures that can be taken, focusing on engineering, education and enforcement, and push, pull and persuasion. Part 3 presents an overview of practical problems and how these can be tackled.

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I.1 That won’t happen to me...
I.2 About this manual
I.2.1 Target groups
I.2.2 Objectives
I.3 Document structure and reading guide
I.4 Delineation
I.4.1 Safety of the road traffic system
I.4.2 Different kinds of safety
I.4.3 Different kinds of transport

Part 1 - Getting a handle on road safety
1 Theory
1.1 Terms and approaches
1.1.1 Key terms
1.1.2 Different perspectives on road safety
1.1.3 Developments in the concept of road safety through the years
1.1.4 Sustainable Safety
1.2 Psychological aspects
1.2.1 Road unsafety caused by the road user
1.2.2 The driving task
1.2.3 Cycle of human information processing
1.2.4 Characteristics of road users and road safety
1.3 Mechanical aspects
1.3.1 Energy transfer during a collision
1.3.2 Differences in speed
1.3.3 Differences in mass
1.3.4 Differences in direction
1.4 Summary
2 Developments and trends
2.1 Developments in road safety over the years
2.1.1 Total number of traffic victims
2.1.2 Registration rate
2.1.3 Victims by type of road user
2.1.4 Victims by gender
2.1.5 Victims by age
2.1.6 Victims by road type
2.1.7 Risk
2.2 Road safety measures taken over the years
2.2.1 Traffic planning measures
2.2.2 Road safety measures
2.2.3 External factors
2.3 The social costs of road unsafety
2.4 The Netherlands in an international perspective
2.5 Key developments in the future
2.6 Summary
3 Policy
3.1 National traffic and transport strategy memorandum
3.2 Road safety strategy 2008 - 2020
3.2.1 Ambitions
3.2.2 Approach
3.2.3 Alternatives
3.3 European road safety action programme EU
3.4 Policy development
3.5 Organisation of responsibilities
3.6 Policy strategies
3.6.1 An integral approach
3.6.2 Safety management and safety culture
3.7 Legislation and regulations
3.8 Monitoring and evaluation of policy
3.9 Summary
4 Data collection and data analysis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Traffic and safety data
4.2.1 Required data
4.2.2 Available data
4.2.3 Collecting extra data
4.3 Summarising and comparing data
4.3.1 Basic terminology
4.3.2 Description of individual data (one variable at a time)
4.3.3 Connections between variables
4.4 Common analysis techniques
4.4.1 Regression analysis
4.4.2 Variance and co-variance analysis
4.4.3 Principal component analysis and factor analysis
4.4.4 Time series analysis
4.4.5 Meta analysis
4.5 Experimental road safety research
4.5.1 Research question
4.5.2 Experimental study design
4.5.3 Analysis
4.5.4 Alternative designs and consequences for the conclusions
4.6 Points of attention when evaluating research
4.7 Summary
5 Practical research
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Preventive tools
5.2.1 Regional road safety explorer
5.2.2 Road safety audit
5.2.3 Conflictogram method
5.3 Curative tools for objective road unsafety
5.3.1 High-risk location approach
5.3.2 Sustainable Safety indicator
5.3.3 Sustainable Safety module in network management procedures
5.3.4 EuroRAP
5.3.5 Roadscape study
5.3.6 Road safety inspection
5.3.7 External behavioural observation
5.3.8 Internal behavioural observation
5.4 Tools for subjective road unsafety
5.4.1 Complaints
5.4.2 Consultation with future residents/users
5.5 Summary

Part 2 - Making traffic safer
6 Spatial planning and the road environment
6.1 Cascade approach
6.2 The interaction between spatial disciplines and road safety
6.3 Planning and planning process
6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 Road safety in the formulation of spatial plans
6.3.3 Road safety in the decentralised planning process
6.3.4 Rectifying deficiencies in existing road safety
6.4 The bridge between urban and rural planning and road safety
6.4.1 Three road categories
6.4.2 A well-constructed road network
6.4.3 Core risk data
6.4.4 Mobility-generating effect
6.5 Urban design en road safety
6.5.1 Urban design through the years and the relationship with road safety
6.5.2 Historic centres (until circa 1850)
6.5.3 Building zones (circa 1850 to 1920)
6.5.4 Open building from 1920 to 1960
6.5.5 The 1960s
6.5.6 The 1970s
6.5.7 The 1980s and 1990s
6.5.8 Recent years
6.5.9 Towards three archetypal development locations
6.5.10 And the future?
6.5.11 Accident data per period
6.5.12 Villages
6.5.13 Passages
6.5.14 Ribbon developments
6.5.15 Recommendations for urban structures
6.6 Outside the built-up area
6.7 Public space and road safety in detail
6.7.1 The overall picture counts
6.7.2 Safe distributor roads
6.7.3 Low speeds in residential areas
6.7.4 The effect of buildings
6.7.5 Legal frameworks
6.7.6 Recommendations for residential areas
6.8 Shared Space
6.8.1 Space and behaviour
6.8.2 Shared Space in a process-oriented perspective
6.8.3 Shared Space and Sustainable Safety
6.9 The importance of effective co-operation
6.9.1 Interdisciplinary approach
6.9.2 Formal co-operation
6.9.3 Informal co-operation
6.9.4 Finances and preconditions
6.9.5 Process technology
6.10 Putting the resident first
6.11 The final phase: view to implementation and management
6.12 Summary
7 Infrastructure
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Preventive/proactive approach: Sustainable Safety
7.1.2 Curative or reactive approach: PCOSE
7.2 Design principles of Sustainable Safety
7.3 Planning and construction of the road infrastructure
7.3.1 Road categories
7.3.2 Categorisation of the road network
7.3.3 Road categorisation and desired behaviour
7.3.4 Essential recognisability characteristics
7.3.5 Road types per road category
7.3.6 Grey roads
7.3.7 Shoulders and obstacle-free zones
7.4 Intersections
7.4.1 Use of different types of intersection
7.4.2 Roundabouts
7.4.3 Priority intersections
7.5 Exit construction
7.6 Pedestrian crossings
7.7 Provisions for specific target groups
7.8 Level railway crossings
7.9 Tunnels
7.10 Residential areas
7.10.1 30 km/h zones
7.10.2 School environment
7.11 Passages
7.12 Area boundaries
7.13 Traffic signs
7.14 Road markings
7.15 Signposting
7.16 Design faults
7.17 Summary
8 Vehicle safety
8.1 The concept of vehicle safety
8.2 Safety measures
8.2.1 Primary safety
8.2.2 Secondary safety
8.2.3 On the road to integrated safety
8.3 Context
8.3.1 Parties affecting vehicle safety
8.3.2 Legislation and programmes
8.4 Summary
9 Road safety education
9.1 Introduction
9.2 What is road safety education?
9.3 What people can and cannot learn
9.3.1 Learning theories
9.3.2 Development theories
9.4 Formulating learning objectives for road safety education programmes
9.4.1 General principles
9.4.2 From general basic principles to a concrete approach
9.5 The content of road safety education: target group approach
9.5.1 (Parents of) children aged between 0 and 4
9.5.2 Children aged between 4 and 12
9.5.3 Young people aged between 12 and 16
9.5.4 Novice drivers
9.5.5 Drivers in possession of a driving licence
9.5.6 Elderly road users
9.6 Road safety education contents: an approach based on behavioural themes
9.7 The organisation of road safety education in the Netherlands
9.8 The effectiveness of road safety education
9.9 Road safety education in a wider perspective: opportunities and threats
9.10 Summary
10 Traffic enforcement
10.1 Introduction
10.2 What is traffic enforcement?
10.2.1 Description and aim of traffic enforcement
10.2.2 Background of traffic enforcement: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, subjective
probability of detection
10.3 Statutory and organisational aspects of traffic enforcement
10.3.1 Statutory
10.3.2 Organisational
10.4 Enforcement communication
10.4.1 What is communication?
10.4.2 The function of communication in enforcement
10.4.3 Points of attention with regard to communication
10.4.4 Connection between traffic enforcement and communication
10.4.5 Relationship between spearheads: consider the hierarchy
10.4.6 The sender: who is communicating?
10.4.7 Intermediaries
10.4.8 The target group
10.4.9 When is communication necessary?
10.4.10 Do’s and don’ts
10.5 Setting up effective traffic enforcement
10.5.1 Getting started with traffic enforcement
10.5.2 Five national spearheads
10.5.3 Other undesirable road user behaviour
10.6 The quality of traffic enforcement
10.6.1 The traffic enforcement chain: coherence and strategy
10.6.2 Punishments and rewards
10.6.3 Measuring quality
10.6.4 Effectiveness of police surveillance
10.6.5 Improving quality
10.7 Summary

Part 3 - Dangerous behaviour, dangerous groups and what can be done about them
11 Risk-enhancing behaviour in traffic
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Alcohol
11.2.1 Statutory framework
11.2.2 Drink driving in the Netherlands
11.2.3 Alcohol-related accidents and the risks related to alcohol consumption
11.2.4 Measures
11.3 Drugs and medicines
11.3.1 Statutory framework
11.3.2 Detection of drugs and medicines
11.3.3 Drugs and medicines in traffic in the Netherlands
11.3.4 The risk of drugs and medicines
11.3.5 Measures
11.4 Fatigue
11.4.1 Statutory framework
11.4.2 Fatigue in traffic
11.4.3 The risk of driving while tired
11.4.4 Potential measures
11.5 Distraction due to mobile phone use while driving
11.5.1 Statutory framework
11.5.2 The frequency of using mobile phones while driving
11.5.3 The risk of phoning while driving
11.5.4 Measures
11.6 Aggression
11.6.1 Statutory framework
11.6.2 Aggression in traffic
11.6.3 The risk of aggression in traffic
11.6.4 Measures
11.7 Speed
11.7.1 Statutory framework
11.7.2 Speed and speed choice
11.7.3 The relation between speed and accidents
11.7.4 Speed control measures
11.8 Red light running
11.8.1 Statutory framework
11.8.2 Red light running
11.8.3 Accidents caused by red light running
11.8.4 Measures
11.9 Keeping distance/tailgating
11.9.1 Statutory framework
11.9.2 Headway times
11.9.3 The dangers of tailgating
11.9.4 Measures
11.10 Failure to use safety devices
11.10.1 Statutory framework
11.10.2 The use of safety devices
11.10.3 The effectiveness of safety devices
11.10.4 Measures
11.11 Summary
12 Specific groups of road users
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Children
12.2.1 Characteristics of this group
12.2.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.2.3 Measures that could improve child safety
12.3 Young people
12.3.1 Characteristics of this group
12.3.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.3.3 Measures that could improve the safety of young motorists
12.4 Elderly: road users aged 75 and over
12.4.1 Characteristics of this group
12.4.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.4.3 Measures that could improve the safety of the elderly
12.5 Pedestrians
12.5.1 Characteristics of this group
12.5.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.5.3 Measures that could improve the safety of pedestrians
12.6 Cyclists
12.6.1 Characteristics of this group
12.6.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.6.3 Measures that could improve the safety of cyclists
12.7 Powered two-wheelers
12.7.1 Characteristics of this group
12.7.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.7.3 Measures that could improve the safety of powered two-wheelers
12.8 Lorries and delivery vans
12.8.1 Characteristics of this group
12.8.2 Share in the total number of casualties
12.8.3 Measures aimed at lorries and delivery vans
12.9 Summary
13 Practical examples
13.1 Developing a road categorisation plan
13.2 Zeeweg to Zandvoort
13.3 Road safety audit: alterations to the Maaswijkweg and construction of a multi-lane
roundabout in Spijkenisse
13.4 Designs and design flaws
13.5 Tiel Station
13.6 Goilberdingen, Culemborg
13.7 Sustainable Safety in an area of cultural and historical value
13.8 Road safety on industrial estates
13.9 Behavioural observations at bus lanes and intersections
13.10 Project to educate young motorists
13.11 Speed enforcement and communication on an 80 km/h road
13.12 Section control system
13.13 Reward project in the Gelderland-Midden police region

Questions and answers
Centres of expertise, educational programmes and websites
Centres of expertise in the Netherlands
Traffic and transport educational programmes in the Netherlands
Subject, alphabetical
Subject per chapter
List of abbreviations

Het nieuwe ‘Handboek verkeersveiligheid’ van CROW telt maar liefst 548 pagina's. De uitgave bundelt dan ook vrijwel alle de kennis op dit gebied in Nederland. Of, zoals CROW zegt, het geeft een evenwichtige en inhoudelijke afspiegeling van de Nederlandse praktijk doordat alle relevante disciplines eraan hebben bijgedragen. Alleen de relatief ‘tijdloze kennis’ wordt behandeld. Hiertoe behoren onder meer modellen, methoden en techniek.

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